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Glomerulonephritis

(Glomerular Disease)

Definition

Glomerulonephritis is a kidney condition that involves damage to the glomeruli. Glomeruli are the tiny structures within the kidney that filter blood.
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs located in the back just below the rib cage. Each kidney is about the size of a fist. The two kidneys filter blood, catch needed substances and return them to the circulation, and dispose of wastes in the urine. If the kidneys don’t filter properly, wastes build up in the blood.
There are two types of glomerulonephritis:
In some cases, glomerulonephritis leads to kidney failure. Kidney failure is a severe kidney disease that must be treated with dialysis or kidney transplant.
Anatomy of the Kidney
Glomerulonephritis
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Causes

Causes of glomerulonephritis include:

Risk Factors

Factors that increase your chances of getting glomerulonephritis include:

Symptoms

Glomerulonephritis sometimes causes no symptoms and is discovered during a routine urine test. When present, the symptoms of acute and chronic glomerulonephritis differ from one another.
The symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis may include:
Chronic glomerulonephritis can lead to kidney failure. It may cause these symptoms:

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a nephrologist who specializes in kidney disease for further diagnostic testing and treatment.
Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:

Treatment

Treatment will depend on the cause of glomerulonephritis. The following steps may be taken to help kidney function or reduce further damage:

Medications

Lifestyle Changes

Dialysis and Transplant

If the kidneys are unable to remove sufficient waste from the blood, dialysis may be required. Temporary dialysis may be sufficient for acute glomerulonephritis. If it leads to permanent kidney failure, chronic glomerulonephritis will require long-term dialysis or kidney transplant.
If the kidneys are unable to remove sufficient waste from the blood, dialysis may be required. Temporary dialysis may be sufficient for acute glomerulonephritis. If it leads to permanent kidney failure, chronic glomerulonephritis will require long-term dialysis or kidney transplant.

Prevention

The following steps may decrease your risk of glomerulonephritis:

RESOURCES

National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES

HealthLink BC http://www.healthlinkbc.ca

The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca

References

Glomerulonephritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 1, 2010. Accessed July 12, 2013.

Glomerulonephritis. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/glomerul.cfm. Accessed July 12, 2013.

Revision Information